Periodicity.: October - December 2017
e-ISSN......: 2236-269X
Cover Image

Economic feasibility of an energy efficiency project for a steam distribution system in a chemical industry

Flavia Melo Menezes, Maria Fátima Góes, Ricardo Araújo Kalid, Armando Hirohumi Tanimoto, José Celio Andrade

Abstract


The burning of fossil fuels majorly contributes to the increase in global warming, and it represents 93% of greenhouse gases emissions in the chemical industry. Most of the energy demand in this sector is associated with steam systems, where 1/3 of the energy efficiency opportunities are located in its distribution system. However, most of the literature focuses on the design of new systems. Those that deal with existing systems, not always use simple and available methods. Furthermore, they address energy losses of steam systems only due to thermal insulation, ignoring those due to leakages of traps. Given this context, the purpose of this paper is to determine the economic feasibility of an energy efficiency project for a steam distribution system in a chemical industry, located in the metropolitan region of Salvador, Brazil. First, the energy lost in the steam distribution system through heat insulation and steam traps was estimated by applying thermodynamic principles, and technic consulting, respectively. Then, investments were estimated using commercial prices for new thermal insulation and steam traps. Finally, an economic evaluation of the improvement project was made, through the construction of a cash flow, and calculation of economic indicators: payback time, net present value (NPV), and internal rate of return (IRR). Economic indicators showed that the project is economically viable. The NPV and IRR reached approximately 5 million reais, and 66% per year, respectively. Additionally, this project also had social and environmental benefits, such as a reduction in greenhouse gases emissions, and increased local water availability.

Keywords


economic feasibility; energy efficiency; steam distribution system

Full Text:

PDF HTML

References


ACEEE – AMERICAN COUCIL FOR AN ENERGY-EFFICIENT ECONOMY (2016) The 2016 International Energy Efficiency Scorecard. Washington DC: ACEEE. Available: http://aceee.org/research-report/e1602. Access: 3rd April, 2017.

ASHRAE - AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEATING, REFRIGERATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING ENGINEERS (2007) Handbook 2007: HVAC Applications. Atlanta: ASHRAE.

ASSAF NETO, A. (1992) Quantitative methods for investment analysis. Caderno de Estudos, São Paulo, n. 6, p. 01-16. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1413-92511992000300001. Access: 20th March, 2017. [Portuguese]

BARROS, M. C. C.; MARQUES, J. A.; SILVA, R. R.; SILVA, F. F.; COSTA, L. T.; GUIMARÃES, G. S. (2015) Economic feasibility of crude glycerin use for finished lambs in confinement. Semina: Ciências Agrárias, Londrina, v. 36, n. 1, p. 443-452. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.5433/1679-0359.2015v36n1p443. Access: 20th March, 2017. [Portuguese]

BRAZIL (1997) Ministry of the Environment, Water Resources, and Legal Amazon. Law n.9.433: National Water Resources Policy. Brasília: Department of Water Resources. Available: http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/leis/L9433.htm. Access: 18th March, 2017. [Portuguese]

BRAZIL (2005) Foundation for the Technological Development of Engineering. Useful Energy Balance – BEU 2005. [Portuguese].

BRAZIL (2010) Ministry of Science and Technology. Greenhouse gases emissions in industrial processes: Chemical Industry/ Brazilian Chemical Industry Association (ABIQUIM). Reference report of the Second Brazilian Inventory of Anthropogenic Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Removals. Brasília: MCT. Available: http://www.mct.gov.br/upd_blob/0228/228961.pdf. Access: 20th March, 2017. [Portuguese]

BRAZIL (2016) Energy Research Company (EPE). National Energy Balance, 2016 – Base year 2015. Rio de Janeiro: EPE. Available: https://ben.epe.gov.br/. Access: 20th March, 2017 [Portuguese].

BRAZIL (2017) Normative Instruction RFB nº1700, de 14 de março de 2017. Diário Oficial da República Federativa do Brasil, Brasília, DF, 16 mar. 2017. Seção 1, p. 23. Available: http://normas.receita.fazenda.gov.br/sijut2consulta/link.action?visao=anotado&idAto=81268#1706802. Access: 20th March, 2017. [Portuguese]

BRUNI, A. L.; FAMÁ, R. (2004) Financial Mathematics: with HP 12C and Excel. 3 ed. São Paulo: Atlas. [Portuguese]

CEB; FUPAI/ EFFICENTIA – BRAZILIAN ELECTRICAL CENTERS (2005a) Energy efficiency in the use of steam. Rio de Janeiro: Eletrobrás. [Portuguese]

CEB; FUPAI/ EFFICENTIA – BRAZILIAN ELECTRICAL CENTERS (2005b) Energy efficiency in steam use: practical manual. Rio de Janeiro: Eletrobrás. [Portuguese]

CENGEL, Y. A. (2003) Heat transfer: a practical approach. Nova Iorque: McGraw-Hill Inc.

CHEN, C. L.; LIN, C. Y. (2011) Design and optimization of steam distribution systems for steam power plants. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, v. 50, p. 8097-8109. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ie102059n. Access: 18th March, 2017.

ÇOMAKLI, K.; YUKSEL, B.; ÇOMAKLI, O. (2003) Thermophysical Evaluation of energy and exergy losses in district heating network. Applied Thermal Engineering, v. 24, p. 1009-1017. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2003.11.014. Access: 18th March, 2017.

DALLA ROSA, A.; LI, H.; SVENDSEN, S. (2011) Method for optimal design of pipes for low-energy district heating, with focus on heat losses. Energy, v. 36, p. 2407-2418. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2011.01.024. Access: 18th March, 2017.

FGV – GETÚLIO VARGAS FOUNDATION (2017) IBRE – BRAZILIAN INSTITUTE OF ECONOMICS. IGP-DI Report. Available: http://portalibre.fgv.br/. Access: 16th February, 2017. [Portuguese].

IPCC - INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (2014) Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Core Writing Team, R.K. Pachauri and L.A. Meyer (eds.)]. Genebra: IPCC. Available: https://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/syr/. Access: 20th March, 2017.

ISOVER – SAINT GOBAIN (2010) Thermal insulation with Super Tel split pipes - Ruler nº 01. [Portuguese].

KAYFECI, M. (2014) Determination of energy saving and optimum insulation thickness of the heating piping systems for different insulation materials. Energy and Buildings, v. 69, p. 278-284. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2013.11.017. Access: 18th March, 2017.

KUZNETSOV, G. V.; POLOVNIKOV, V. Y. (2011) The conjugate problem of convective-conductive heat transfer for heat pipelines. Journal of Engineering Thermophysics, v. 20, n. 2, p. 217-224. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S181023281102010X. Access: 18th March, 2017.

KRUCZEK, T. (2013) Determination of annual heat losses from heat and steam pipeline networks and economic analysis of their thermomodernisation. Energy, v. 62, p. 120-131. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2013.08.019. Access: 18th March, 2017.

LI, H.; SVENDSEN, S. (2012) Energy and exergy analysis of low temperature district heating network. Energy, v. 45, p. 237-246. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2012.03.056. Access: 18th March, 2017.

OZTURK, I. T.; KARABAY, H.; BILGEN, E. (2006) Thermo-economic optimization of hot water piping systems: a comparison study. Energy, v. 31, p. 2094-2107. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2005.10.008. Access: 18th March, 2017.

POLOVNIKOV, V. Y.; GUBANOV, Y. Y. (2015) Numerical analysis of a heat loss of channel-free heat pipeline in the real application conditions. EPJ Web of Conferences, v. 82. Available: https://doi.org/10.1051/epjconf/20158201008. Access: 18th March, 2017.

POLOVNIKOV, V. Y.; GUBINA, E. V. (2014) Heat loss of heat pipelines in moisture conditions of thermal insulation. EPJ Web of Conferences, v. 76. Available: https://doi.org/10.1051/epjconf/20147601029. Access: 18th March, 2017.

SANAEI, S. M.; NAKATA, T. (2012) Optimum design of district heating: application of a novel methodology for improved design of community scale integrated energy systems. Energy, v. 38, p. 190-204. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2011.12.016. Access: 18th March, 2017.

SEEG/OC – SYSTEM STUDY GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS ESTIMATES/ CLIMATE OBSERVATORY (2016) General Emissions Table. Available: http://seeg.eco.br/tabela-geral-de-emissoes. Access: 7th January, 2016. [Portuguese]

SPIRAX SARCO (2006) Steam system evaluation of the Efficient Industry. [Portuguese].

TECHSOL (2016) Steam traps evaluation of the Efficient Industry. [Portuguese].

TSYGANKOVA, Y. S.; DMITRIENKO, M. A. (2014) Comprehensive definition of thermal losses taking into account to the conditions of thermal networks. MATEC Web of Conferences, v. 19. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/20141901022. Access: 18th March, 2017.

UNFCCC - UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE (2015) The Paris Agreement. Available: http://unfccc.int/paris_agreement/items/9485.php. Access: 1st May, 2017.

WYNN, G. (2015) Decoding the Paris climate deal: What does it mean? Climate Home. Politics, COP21. Available: http://www.climatechangenews.com/2015/12/12/decoding-the-paris-climate-deal-what-does-it-mean. Access: 17th March, 2017.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14807/ijmp.v8i4.672

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2017 Flavia Melo Menezes, Maria Fátima Góes, Ricardo Araújo Kalid, Armando Hirohumi Tanimoto, José Celio Andrade

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

LIBRARIES BY

Logo Gaudeamus

Logo INDIANA

Logo CHENG KUNG

Logo UTEP

Logo MOBIUS

Logo UNIVEM

Logo Kennedy

Logo Columbia

Logo UCS

Logo MSG/UFF

Logo OPT

Logo Biblioteca Professor Milton Cabral Moreira

Logo UFL

Logo ULRICHSWEB

Logo UNISA