Econometric evidence on happiness and its determinants among rice farmers in leyte, Philippines

Main Article Content

Leomarich Casinillo
Moises Neil Seriño
صندلی اداری


The study investigated the influence of socio-economic factors on rice farmers' subjective well-being in barangay Tabunok, Hilongos, Leyte, Philippines. A face-to-face interview was conducted among 177 randomly selected rice farmers and 50 purposive samples of wage workers for comparison. Descriptive statistics and econometric modeling was used to examine the determinants of happiness in farming. Results show that the farmers’ actual happiness is significantly lower than the expectations.  Knowledge, skills, health, and farm owner make them more competent than the other farmers and increase their happiness level. An increase in income leads to an increase in household assets, giving benefits and comfort to the family and directly influencing their well-being. Furthermore, results reveal that farmers’ level of happiness is significantly lower compared to wage workers. Also, farmers are negatively affected by the price increase of agricultural inputs and low harvested output prices in the country.



Download data is not yet available.

Article Details



Adam, N. S., & Pebrian, D. E. (2017). Factors affecting farmers’ satisfactions with mechanized rice harvesting in Malaysian paddy fields: A case study of hiring custom operators. Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal, 19(2), 120–128. Retrieved from

Andersson, P. (2008). Happiness and health: Well-being among the self-employed. Journal of Socio-Economics, 37(1), 213–236.

Bordey, F. H. (2010). The impacts of research on Philippine rice production. PhD dissertation, University of Illinois.

Casinillo, L. F. (2020). Econometric Modelling On Satisfaction In Rice Farming Under Philippine Rice Tariffication Law. Journal of Research and Multidisciplinary, 3(2), 326-336.

Cochran, W. G. (1953). Sampling Techniques. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York.

Conover, W. J. (1980). Practical Nonparametric Statistics. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York.

Cummins, R. A. (2000). Personal income and subjective well-being: A review. Journal of Happiness Studies, 1(2), 133–158.

Dalton, R. J., Pham, M. H., Pham, T. N., & Ngu-Ngoc, T. O. (2002). Social relations and social capital in Vietnam: Findings from the 2002 world values survey. International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 1(3–4), 369–386.

Deaton, A. (2008). Income, health and wellbeing around the world: Evidence from the Gallup World Poll. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 22(2), 53–72.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The ‘what’ and ‘why’ of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11(4), 227–268.

Dullas, A. R., & Acoba, E.F. (2013). Concept of happiness among Filipino farmers: A qualitative and quantitative view. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, Germany.

Fagerland, M. W. (2014). adjcatlogit, ccrlogit, and ucrlogit: Fitting ordinal logistic regression models. Stata Journal, 14, 947–964.

Fraser, D. A. S. (1957). Nonparametric Methods in Statistics. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York.

Frey, B. S. (2008). Happiness: A Revolution in Economics. MIT Press, Cambridge.

Frey, B. S., Benz, M., & Stutzer, A. (2004). Introducing procedural utility: Not only what, but also how matters. Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics, 160, 377–401.

Frey, B., & Stutzer, A. (2010). Happiness: A New Approach in Economics. CESifo DICE Report, Center for Research in Economics, Management and the Arts, Switzerland.

Gelman A., & Hill J. (2007). Data Analysis using Regression and multilevel/Hierarchical models. Cambridge University Press, New York.

Graham, C. (2004), The Economics of Happiness: Insights on Globalization from a novel approach, World Economics, 6(3), 41-55.

Graham, C., & Petinatto, S. (2001). Happiness, markets and democracy: Latin America in comparative perspective. Journal of Happiness Studies, 2(3), 237–268.

Greene, W. H. (2008). Econometric Analysis. 6th edition. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.

Guazzelli, G. P., & Zilli, J. B. (2016). Economics of Happiness: A Study on Happiness Indicators in University Professors. ECOFORUM, 5(1): 171-181.

Kamaruddin, R., Ali, J., & Saad, N. M. (2013). Happiness and its Influencing Factors Among Paddy Farmers in Granary Area of MADA. Proceedings Book of ICEFMO. PAK Publishing Group. Malaysia.

Knight, J., & Gunatilaka, R. (2010). Great expectations? The subjective well-being of rural-urban migrants in China. World Development, 38(1), 113–124.

Koirala, K. H., Mishra, A. K., & Mohanty, S. (2014). Impact of land ownership on productivity and efficiency of rice farmers: A simulated maximum likelihood Approach. A Paper Presentation. Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, Philippines.

Lyubomirsky, S., & Lepper, H. S. (1999). A measure of subjective happiness: Preliminary reliability and construct validation. Social Indicators Research, 46, 137-155.

Markussen, T., Fibæk, M., Tarp, F., & Tuan, N. D. A. (2018). The Happy Farmer: Self-Employment and Subjective Well-Being in Rural Vietnam. Journal of Happiness Studies, 19, 1613– 1636.

Ng. (2002). The East-asian Happiness Gap: Speculating on Causes and Implications. Pacific Economic Review, 7(1), 51-63.

Pandey, S., Rosegrant, M. W., Sulser, T., & Bhandari, H. (2010). Rice price crisis: Causes, impacts, and solutions. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Development, 7(2), 1-15

Proto, E. (2016). Are happy workers more productive? IZA World of Labor, 315, 1-8.

Sarmiento, K. I. (2011). The subjective well-being of landless farm families: An individual to family level approach. Unpublished Thesis, CLSU, Science City of Munoz, Nueva Ecija.

Stock, J. H., & Watson, M. W. (2007). Introduction to Econometrics. 2nd edition. Pearson Addison Wesley. Boston.

Štreimikienė, & Grundey. (2009). Life Satisfaction and Happiness-The Factors in Work Performance. Guest Editorial. Economic & Sociology, 2(1): 9-26.

Villano, R., & Fleming, E. (2006). Technical Inefficiency and Production Risk in Rice Farming: Evidence from Central Luzon Philippines. Asian Economic Journal, 20(1), 29-46.

Wooldridge, J. M. (2002). Econometric Analysis. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.

Yagos, R. M., & Demayo, C. G. (2015) Farmer’s perceptions on rice production management practices in Bayog, Zamboanga Del Sur, Mindanao, Philippines. Journal of Scientific Research and Development, 2(14), 96-101.

فروشگاه اینترنتی