Periodicity.: January - March 2017
e-ISSN......: 2236-269X
Cover Image

Forms of destructive relationships among the employees: how many and what the extent of the spread?

Jolita Vveinhardt, Jūratė Kuklytė

Abstract


Destructive behavior at work is one of the most important research topics affecting organizational performance standards and well-being. The article presented a scientific literature analysis and synthesis as well as the authors insight into destructive relationships in the work environment. There a various forms of destructive relationship in a workplace: mobbing, rare bullying, discrimination, nepotism, favoritism, cronyism, social ostracism, social loafing, organizational cynicism, depersonalization and cyber loafing. Destructive relationships shape the work environment has a negative impact on productivity, motivation, job satisfaction, health and promotes resignation. Destructive relationships among employees are explored in various sectors like transport and logistics, restaurants and catering, telecommunications, education and science and others.

Keywords


Destructive relationships; Mobbing; Nepotism; Favoristism; Workplace

Full Text:

PDF HTML

References


ADAMSON, M. (2015) The making of a glass slipper: Exploring patterns of inclusion and exclusion in a feminized profession. Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, v. 34, n. 3, p. 214-226. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/EDI-01-2014-0002

AKELLA, D. (2016) Workplace Bullying: Not a Manager’s Right? Journal of Workplace Rights, p. 1-10. DOI: 10.1177/2158244016629394

ALIAS, M.; RASDI, R. M. (2015) Organizational Predictors of Workplace Deviance Among Support Staff. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, v. 172, p. 126-133. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.01.345

ALTINKURT, Y.; EKINCI, C. E. (2016) Examining the Relationships between Occupational Professionalism and Organizational Cynicism of Teachers. Educational Process: International Journal, v. 5, n. 3, p. 236-253. http://dx.doi.org/10.12973/edupij.2016.53.5

ARASLI, H.; BAVIK, A.; EKIZ, E. H. (2006) The effects of nepotism on human resource management: The case of three, four and five star hotels in Northern Cyprus. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, v. 26, n. 7/8, p. 295-308. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/01443330610680399

ARASLI, H.; TUMER, M. (2008) Nepotism, Favoritism and Cronyism: A Study of their Effects on Job Stress and Job Satisfaction in the Banking Industry of North Cyprus. Social Behavior and Personlity, v. 36, n. 9, p. 1237-1250.

ASLAM, U.; ILYAS, M.; IMRAN, M. K. (2016) Detrimental effects of cynicism on organizational change: An interactive model of organizational cynicism (a study of employees in public sector organizations). Journal of Organizational Change Management, v. 29, n. 4, p. 580-598. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/JOCM-12-2014-0231

BENNETT, R. J.; ROBINSON, S. L. (2000) Development of a measure of workplace deviance. Journal of Applied Psychology, v. 85, n. 3, p. 349-360.

BERGBOM, B.; VARTIA-VAANANEN, M.; KINNUNEN, U. (2015) Immigrants and natives at work: exposure to workplace bullying. Employee Relations, v. 37, n. 2, p. 158-175. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/ER-09-2014-0101

BERGER, P. L.; LUCKMAN, T. (1999) Socialinės tikrovės konstravimas: žinojimo sociologijos traktatas. Vilnius: Pradai.

BERRY, D.; BELL, M. P. (2012) Inequality in organizations: stereotyping, discrimination, and labor law exclusions. Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, v. 31, n. 3, p. 236-248. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02610151211209090

BERTHELSEN, M.; SKOGSTAD, A.; LAU, B.; EINARSEN, S. (2011) Do they stay or do they go?: A longitudinal study of intentions to leave and exclusion from working life among targets of workplace bullying. International Journal of Manpower, v. 32, n. 2, p. 178-193. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/01437721111130198

BJÖRKQVIST, K.; ÖSTERMAN, K.; HJELT-BÄCK, M. (1994a) Aggression among university employees. Aggressive Behavior, n. 20, p. 173-184.

BJÖRKQVIST, K.; ÖSTERMAN, K.; LAGERSPETZ, K. (1994b) Sex differences in covert aggression in adults. Aggressive Behavior, n. 20, p. 27-33.

BOWEN, B.; PRIVITERA, M. R.; BOWIE, V. (2011) Reducing workplace violence by creating healthy workplace environments. Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, v. 3, n. 4, p. 185-19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/17596591111187710

BOWEN, P.; EDWARDS P.; LINGARD, H. (2013) Workplace stress among construction professionals in South Africa: The role of harassment and discrimination. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, v. 20, n. 6, p. 620-635. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/ECAM-05-2012-0051

BOXMAN, E.; DEGRAAF, P.; FLAP, H. (1991) The impact of social and human capital on the income attainment of Dutch managers. Social Networks, v. 13, p. 51-73.

BRADDOCK, J. H.; MCPARTLAND, J. (1987) How minorities coninue to be excluded from equal employment opportunities: research on a labor market an institutional barriers. Journal of Social Issues, v. 43, n. 1, p. 5-39.

BREWER, G.; WHITESIDE, E. (2012) Workplace bullying and stress within the prison service. Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, v. 4, n. 2, p. 76-85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/17596591211208283

BROWN, B. J.; BAKER, S. (2007) Philosophies of Research into Higher Education. London, New York: Continuum International Publishing Group, p. 87-90.

BRUDNIK-DABROWSKA, M. (2014) Mobbing in a Workplace Setting. Journal of Health Sciences, v. 4, n. 3, p. 369-381. http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.17167

BUUNK, A. P.; FRANCO, S.; DIJKSTRA, P.; ZURRIAGA, R. (2016) Mobbing in Schools and Hospitals in Uruguay: Prevalence and Relation to Loss of Status. Journal of Interpersonal Violance, p. 1-12. DOI: 10.1177/0886260515625903

CARNERO, M. A.; MARTINEZ, B.; SANCHEZ-MANGAS, R. (2012) Mobbing and workers’ health: empirical analysis for Spain. International Journal of Manpower, v. 33, n. 3, p. 322-339. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/01437721211234183

CETINTAS, K.; SARICAM, H. (2016) Self-esteem and perceived social competence: The preservative attempts to ostracism and loneliness for children. Conference: 1st Eurasian Congress on Positive Psychology, At Uskudar University, Istanbul. Prieiga per internetą: https://www.academia.edu/24954603/Self-esteem_and_perceived_social_competence_The_preservative_attempts_to_ostracism_and_loneliness_for_children (prijungta 2016 06 20).

CHEUNG, H. K.; KING, E.; LINDSEY, A.; MEMBERE, A.; MARKELL H. M.; KILCULLEN, M. (2016) Understanding and Reducing Workplace Discrimination, in M. Ronald Buckley, Jonathon R. B. Halbesleben, Anthony R. Wheeler (ed.) Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management (Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, Volume 34) Emerald Group Publishing Limited, p. 101-152.

ÇINAR, O.; KARCIOGLU, F. (2015) The Relationshio between Cyber Loafing and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: A Survey Study in Erzurum/Turkey. 11th International Strategic Management Conference 2015. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, n. 207, p. 444-453.

CULLEN, K. L.; FAN, J.; LIU, C. (2014) Employee Popularity Mediates the Relationship Between the Political Skill and Workplace Interpersonal Mistreatement. Journal of Management, v. 40, n. 6, p. 1760-1778. doi: 10.1177/0149206311435104.

DAVIS, W. D.; GARDNER, W. L. (2004) Perceptions of politics and organizational cynicism: An attributional and leader–member exchange perspective. The Leadership Quarterly, v. 15, n. 4, p. 439-465. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2004.05.002

D'CRUZ, P.; NORONHA, E. (2011) The limits to workplace friendship: Managerialist HRM and bystander behaviour in the context of workplace bullying. Employee Relations, v. 33, n. 3, p. 269-288. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/01425451111121777

DE BACKER, M.; BOEN, F.; DE CUYPER, B.; HOIGARD, R.; VANDE BROEK, G. (2015) A team fares well with a fair coach: Predictors of social loafing in interactive female sport teams. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science of Sport, v. 25, n. 6, p. 897-908.

DIERGARTEN, E. (1994) Mobbing – Wenn der Arbeitsalltag zum Alptraum wird. Bund Verlag, Köln.

DRABEK, M.; MERECZ, D. (2013) Job stress, occupational position and gender as factors differentiating workplace bullying experience. Medycyna Pracy, v. 64, n. 3, p. 283-296.

DRENTEA, P. (1998) Consequencies of women‘s formal and informal job search methods for employent in female-dominated jobs. Gender and Society, v. 12, n. 3, p. 331-338.

EINARSEN, S.; SKOGSTAD, A. (1996) Bullying at work: Epidemiological findings in public and private organizations. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psycholgy: Mobbing and victimization at work, London, p. 185-201.

EINARSEN, S.; RAKNES, B. I. (1997) Harassment in the workplace and the victimization of men. Violence and Victims, v. 12, p. 247-263.

EROL, Y.; OZTOPRAK, M. T. (2015) The Mediating Role of Job Stress on The Effect of Mobbing on Burnout: An Analysis of Social Security Organization Employees in The District of Ankara. Journal of Business Research Turk, v. 7, n. 2, p. 87-114.

FERRIS, D. L.; BROWN, D. J.; BERRY, J. W.; LIAN, H. (2008) The Development and Validation of the Workplace Ostracism Scale. Journal of Applied Psychology, v. 93, n. 6, p. 1348-1366. DOI: 10.1037/a0012743

FOLEY, S.; NGO, H.; LOI, R.; ZHENG, X. (2015) Gender, gender identification and perceived gender discrimination: An examination of mediating processes in China. Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, v. 34, n. 8, p. 650-665. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/EDI-05-2015-0038

FU, I. P. (2015) Favoritism: Ethical Dilemmas Viewed Through Multiple Paradigms. The Journal of Values-Based Leadership, v. 8, n. 1, p. 1-7.

GAMIAN-WILK, M. (2013) Does Bullying Increase Compliance? Social Influence, v. 8, n. 2-3, p. 131-148. doi: 10.1080/15534510.2012.756429

GENERAL DIRECTORATE OF FAMILY AND COMMUNITY (2013) Turkey adolescent research profile-2013. http://ailetoplum.aile.gov.tr/data/544f6ddd369dc328a057d01c/tepa2013_teksf.pdf. Accessed 12/05/2016.

GIORGI, G.; ARENAS, A.; LEON-PEREZ, J. M. (2011) An Operative Measure of Workplace Bullying: The Negative Acts Questionnaire Across Italian Companies. Industrial Health, n. 49, p. 686-695.

GKOREZIS, P.; BELLOU, V. (2016) The relationship between workplace ostracism and information Exchange The mediating role of self-serving behavior. Management Decision, v. 54, n. 3, p. 700-713. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/MD-09-2015-0421

GOK, S. (2011) Prevalence and types of mobbing behavior: A research on banking employees. International Journal of Human Sciences, v. 8, n. 1, p. 318-334.

GÖRZIG, A. (2016) Adolescents' Viewing of Suicide-Related Web Content and Psychological Problems: Differentiating the Roles of Cyberbullying Involvement. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, v. 19, n. 8, p. 502-509. doi:10.1089/cyber.2015.0419.

GRANOVETTER, M. (1974) Getting a Job. 2nd edition. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.

HITLAN, R. T.; KELLY, K. M.; SCHEPMAN, S.; SCHNEIDER, K. T.; ZARATE, M. A. (2006) Language Exclusion and consequences of perceived ostracism in the workplace. Group Dynamics-Theory Research and Practice, v. 10, n. 1, p. 56-70. DOI: 10.1037/1089-2699.10.1.56

HOEL, H.; EINARSEN, S.; COOPER, C. L. (2003) Organizational effects of bullying. Bullying and Emotional Abuse in the workplace: international perspectives in research and practice. London: Taylor and Francis.

HOLLIBAUGH, G. E. (2015) Naïve Cronyism and Neutral Competence: Patronage, Performance, and Policy Agreement in Executive Appointments. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, v. 25, p. 341-372.

HOLLIS, L. P. (2015) Bully University? The Cost of Workplace Bullying and Employee Disengagement in American Higher Education. Sage Open, v. 5, n. 2. DOI: 10.1177/2158244015589997

HOLLIS, L. P. (2016) Labor Intensive: Workplace Bullying, Union Membership, and Unrealized Civil Rights for People of Color, in Leah P. Hollis (ed.) The Coercive Community College: Bullying and its Costly Impact on the Mission to Serve Underrepresented Populations (Diversity in Higher Education, Vo1.8) Emerald Group Publishing Limited, p. 83-101. DOI: 10.1108/S1479-364420160000018011

HRAST, M. F.; MRAK, A. K.; RAKAR, T. (2013) Social exclusion of elderly in Central and Eastern Europe. International Journal of Social Economics, v. 40, n. 11, p.971-989. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/IJSE-05-2012-0082

HUTCHINSON, M.; JACKSON, D. (2014) The construction and legitimation of workplace bullying in the public sector: Insight into power dynamics and organizational failures in health and social care. Nursing Inquiry, v. 22, p. 13-26.

I-PANG, F. (2015) Favoritism: Ethical Dilemmas Viewed Through Multiple Paradigms. The Journal of Values-Based Leadership, v. 8, n. 1, Article 6. Available at: http://scholar.valpo.edu/jvbl/vol8/iss1/6

JASKIEWICZ, P.; UHLENBRUCK, K.; BALKIN, D. B.; REAY, T. (2013) Is Nepotism Good or Bad? Types of Nepotism and Implications for Knowledge Management. Family Business Review, v. 26, n. 2, p. 121-139.

JONSSON, P. O. (2001) Networks, culture, transaction costs and discrimination. International Journal of Social Economics, v. 28, n. 10/11/12, p. 942-958. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/EUM0000000006134

KANG, H. C.; KIM, J. (2016) Why do family firms switch between family CEOs and non-family professional CEO?: Evidence from Korean Chaebols. Review of Accounting and Finance, v. 15, n. 1, p. 45-64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/RAF-03-2015-0032

KARADAL, H.; SAYGIN, M. (2013) An Investigation of the Relationship between Social Loafing and Organizational Citizenship Behavior. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, n. 99, p. 206-215.

KARATUNA, I. (2015) Targets’ coping with workplace bullying: a qualitative study. Qualitative Research in Organizations and Management: An International Journal, v. 10, n. 1, p. 21-37.

KELEŞ, H. N.; ÖZKAN, K.; BEZIRCI, M. (2011) A study on the effects of nepotism, favoritism and cronyism on organizational trust in the auditing process in family businesses in Turkey. International Business & Economics Research Journal, n. 10, p. 9-16.

KERR, N. L.; SEOK, D. H.; POULSEN, J. R.; HARRIS, D. W.; MESSE, L. A. (2008) Social ostracism and group motivation gain. European Journal of Social Psychology, v. 38, p. 736–746.

KERSTENS, J.; VEENSTRA, S.; JAISHANKAR, K. (2015) Cyber Bullying in the Netherlands: A Criminological Perspective. International Journal of Cyber Cryminology. http://dx.doi.org/10.52

KNORZ, C.; ZAPF, D. (1995) Mobbing: Eine extreme Form sozialer Stressoren am Arbeitsplatz. Zeitschrift fuer Arbeits und Organisationspsychologie, n. 1, p. 12–22.

KOSTEV K.; REX, J.; WAEHLERT, L.; HOG. D.; HEILMAIER, C. (2014) Risk of psichiatrik and neurological diseases in patients with workplace mobbing experience in Germany: a retrospective database analysis. Value in Health, v. 16, n. 7. DOI: 10.3205/000195

KRAGH, S. U. (2012) The Anthropology of Nepotism: Social Distance and Reciprocity in Organizations in Developing Countries. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, v. 12, n. 2, p. 247-265.

KULKARNI, M.; SOMMER, K. (2015) Language-Based Exclusion and Prosocial Behaviors in Organizations. Human Resource Management, v. 54, n. 4, p. 637-652. DOI: 10.1002/hrm.21637

LEUNG, A. S. M.; WU, L. Z.; CHEN, Y. Y.; YOUNG, M. N. (2011) The impact of workplace ostracism in the service organizations. International Journal of Hospitality Management, v. 30, n. 4, p. 836-844. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijhm.2011.01.004

LEYMANN, H. (1990) Mobbing and psychological terror at workplaces. Violence and Victims, v. 5, n. 2, p. 119–126.

LEYMANN, H. (1993) Mobbing: Psychoterror am Arbeitsplatz und wie man sich dagegen wehren kann. Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt Taschenbuch Verlag.

LEYMANN, H. (1995) Der neue Mobbing Bericht; Erfahrungen und Initiativen, Auswege und Hilfsangebote. Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt Taschenbuch Verlag.

LEYMANN, H. (1996) The content and development of mobbing at work. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, v. 5, n. 2, p. 165-184.

LIDEN, R. C.; WAYNE, J. S.; JAWORSKI, R. A.; BENNET, N. (2004) Social Loafing: A Field of Investigation. Journal of Management, v. 30, n. 2, p. 285-304. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jm.2003.02.002

LIU, B.; LIU, J.; HU, J. (2010) Person-organization fit, job satisfaction, and turnover intention: an empirical study in the Chinese public sector. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, v. 38, n. 5, p. 615-625.

MARTIN, B. (2000) Mobbing: Emotional Abuse in the American Workplace. Journal of Organizational Change Management, v. 13, n. 4, p. 401-446. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/jocm.2000.13.4.401.3

MATHISEN, G. E.; OGAARD, T.; EINARSEN, S. (2012) Individual and situatioi. 5, p. 539-555. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/01437721211253182

MAVIN, S. (2008) Queen bees, wanabees and afraid to bees: no more best enemies for women in management. British Journal of Management, v. 19, n. 1, p. 165-184.

MCKAY, R. B. (2014) Confronting Workplace Bullying: Agency and Structure in the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. Administration and Society, v. 46, n. 5, p. 548-572.

MEFOK, P. C.; NWANOSIKE, C. L. (2012) Effects of Group Size and Expectancy of Reward of Social Loafing. Journals of Africa Online, v. 20, n. 1.

MESSARRA, L. C.; KARKOULIAN, S.; MCCARTHY, R. (2011) To restrict or not to restrict personal internet usage on the job. Education, Business and Society: Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues, v. 4, n. 4, p. 253-266. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/17537981111190042

MOK, A.; De CREMER, D. (2016) The bonding effect of money in the workplace:priming money weakens the negative reationship between relationship between ostracism and prosocial behaviour. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, v. 25, n. 2, p. 272-286. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1359432X.2015.1051038

MULDER, R.; BOS, E.; POUWELSE, M.; VAN DAM, K. (2016) Workplace mobbing: How the victim's coping behavior influences bystander responses. Journal of Social Psychology, v. 17, p. 1-14.

MUTLU, K. (2000) Problems of nepotism and favouritism in the police organization in Turkey. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, v. 23, n. 3, p. 381-389. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13639510010343056

NADEEM, M.; AHMAD, R.; AHMAD, N.; BATOOL, S. R.; SHAFIQUE, N. (2015) Favoritism, nepotism And cronyism as predictors of job satisfaction: Evidences from Pakistan. Journal of Business and Management Research, v. 8, p. 224-228.

NAUS, F.; VAN ITERSON, A.; ROE, R. (2007) Value incongruence, Job autonomy, and organization-Based Self-esteem: a Self-Based Perspective on organizational cynicism. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, v. 16, n. 2, p. 195-219. DOI: 10.1080/13594320601143271.

NEUBERGER, O. (1994) Mobbing: Übel mitspielen in Organisationen. München: Rainer Hampp Verlag.

NEZLEK, J. B.; WESSELMANN, E. D.; WHEELER, L.; & WILLIAMS, K. D. (2012) Ostracism in everyday life. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, v. 16, p. 91-104.

NIEDL, K. (1995) Mobbing/Bullying am Arbeitzplatz. Eine Empirische Analyse zum Phaenomen sowie zu personalwirtschaftlich relevanten Effekten von systematischen Feindseligkeiten. Personalwirtschaftliche Schriften, Muenchen, Mering: Rainer Hampp Verlag.

OGURLU, U. (2015) Ostracism among Gifted Adolescents: A Preliminary Study inTurkey. Educational Process: International Journal, v. 4, n. 1-2, p. 18-30. http://dx.doi.org/10.12973/edupij.2015.412.2

ONOSHCHENKO, O.; WILLIAMS, C. (2014) Evaluating the role of blat in finding graduate employment in post-Soviet Ukraine: The “dark side” of job recruitment? Employee Relations, v. 36, n. 3, p. 254-265. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/ER-06-2013-0070

O'REILLY, J.; ROBINSON, S. L.; BERDAHL, J.; BANKI, S. (2014) Is Negative Attention Better Than No Attention? The Comparative Effects of Ostracism and Harassment at Work. Organization Science, v. 26, n. 3, p. 774-793. http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/orsc.2014.0900

OZLER, N. D. E.; BUYUKARSLAN, B. A. (2011) The Overall Outlook Of Favoritism In Organizations: A Literature Revie. International Journal Of Business And Management Studies, v. 3, n. 1, p. 275-284.

PADGETT, M. Y.; MORRIS, K. A. (2005) Keeping it “All in the family:” Does nepotism in the hiring process really benefit the beneficiary? Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, v. 11, n. 2, p. 34-45.

PALIDAUSKAITĖ, J. (2011) Ethical Problems in Public Life and Their Solution: Lithuanian Scenario. Social Sciences, v. 71, n. 1, p. 15-23.

PETERSON, J. S.; RAY, K. E. (2006) Bullying and the gifted: Victims, perpetrators, prevalence, and effects. Gifted Child Quarterly, n. 50, p. 148-168.

PILCH, I.; TURSKA, E. (2015) Relationships Between Machiavellianism, Organizational Culture, and Workplace Bullying: Emotional Abuse from the Target’s and the Perpetrator’s Perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, v. 128, n. 1, p. 83-93.

PILIPONYTĖ, J. (2004) Korupcija: teoriniai bandymai apibrėžti ir paaiškinti. Sociologija. Mintis ir veiksmas, n. 2, p. 83-95.

PIVORAS, S. (2012) Konkursinės atrankos į Lietuvos valstybės tarnybą tobulinimas gero valdymo iššūkių perspektyvoje. Viešoji politika ir administravimas, v. 11, n. 3. p. 473-487.

PONZO, M.; SCOPPA, V. (2010) The use of informal networks in Italy: Efficiency or favoritism? Journal of Socio-Economics, v. 39, n. 1, p. 89-99.

POON, K.; CHEN, Z. (2014) When justice surrenders: The effect of just-world beliefs on aggression following ostracism. Journal of Experimental Psychology, v. 52, p. 101-122. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2014.01.006

PRUSKUS, V. (2003) Verslo etika. Vilnius: Enciklopedija.

PUČĖTAITĖ, R. (2016) Žmogiškųjų išteklių valdymo vadybos etinės problemos kultūros organizacijoje. Meno vadyba, Vilnius: VU, sudarytoja V. Jurėnienė.

PUČĖTAITĖ, R.; LAMSA, A. M. (2008) Developing Organizational Trust Through Advancement of Employees’ Work Ethic in a Post-Socialist Context. Journal of Business Ethics, v. 82, n. 2, p. 325-337. DOI: 10.1007/s10551-008-9922-x

PUČĖTAITĖ, R.; LAMSA, A. M.; NOVELSKAITĖ, A. (2010) Building organizational trust in a lowtrust societal context. Baltic Journal of Management, v. 5, n. 2, p. 197-217. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/17465261011045124

QUINE, L. (1999) Workplace bullying in NHS community trust: staff questionnairw survey. British Medical Journal, p. 228–232.

QURESHI, M. I.; RASLI, A. M.; ZAMAN, K. (2014) A New Trilogy to Understand the Relationship among Organizational Climate, Workplace Bullying and Employee Health. ARAB Business and Economics Journal, v. 9, p. 133-146.

RALYS, K. (2010) Šeima kaip vertybė katalikų, tikėjimo, amžiaus ir lyties aspektu. Ugdymo psichologija. n. 21.

RAYNER, C.; HOEL, H. (1997) A summary review of literature relating to workplace bullying. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, n. 7, p. 181–191.

RECARIO, R. N.; ROBLES M. B. B.; BAUTISTA K. E. P.; PABICO J. P. (2015) Social Loafing Among Undergraduate Software Engineering Groups: Persistence of Perception Seven Years After. 13th National Conference on Information Technology Education (NCITE 2015), Angeles University Foundation, Angeles City, Pampanga, Philippines, 22-24 October 2015.

RENN, R.; ALLEN, D.; HUNUNG, T. (2013) The Relationship of Social Exclusion at Work With Self-defeating Behavior andTurnover. Journal of Social Psychology, v. 153, n. 2, p. 229-249. DOI: 10.10280/00224545.2012.723642

RICHARDS, J. (2012) Examining the exclusion of employees with Asperger syndrome from the workplace. Personnel Review, v. 41, n. 5. p. 630-646, http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/00483481211249148

ROSENBAUM, M. S.; WALSH, G.; WOZNIAK, R. (2012) Family allowances as reverse retail discrimination. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, v. 40, n. 5, p. 342-359. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09590551211222321

RUGGIERI, S.; BENDIXEN, M.; GABRIEL, U.; ALSAKER, F. (2013) Do Victimization Experiences Accentuate Reactions to Ostracism? An Experiment Using Cyberball. International Journal of Developmental Science, v. 7, p. 25–32.

SAFINA, D. (2015) Favouritism and Nepotism in an Organization: Causes and Effects. Procedia – Economics and Finance, v. 23, p. 630-634. doi:10.1016/S2212-5671(15)00416-5

SALIN, D. (2003) Ways of Explaining Workplace Bullying: A Review of Enabling, Motivating and Precipitating Structures and Processes in the Work Environment. Human Relashions, v. 56, n. 10, p. 1213-1232.

SALIN, D. (2005) Workplace Bullying among Business Professionals: Prevalence, Gender Differences and the Role of Organizational Politics. Perspectives interdisciplinaires sur le travail et la santé [En ligne], n. 7-3. URL: http://pistes.revues.org/3159

SARPONG, D.; MACLEAN, M. (2015) Service nepotism in the multi-ethnic marketplace: mentalities and motivations. International Marketing Review, v. 32, n. 2, p. 160–180. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/IMR-01-2014-0030

SCHAUFELI, W. B.; SALANOVA, M. (2011) Work engagement: on how to better catch a slippery concept. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, v. 20, p. 39-46.

SCOTT, A. K.; ZWEIG, D. (2016) Understanding and mitigating cynicism in the workplace. Journal of Managerial Psychology, v. 31, n. 2, p. 552-569. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/JMP-01-2015-0023

SCOTT, K. L.; DUFFY, M. K. (2015) Antecedents of Workplace Ostracism: New Directions in Research and Intervention, in Pamela L. Perrewé , Jonathon R. B. Halbesleben , Christopher C. Rosen (ed.) Mistreatment in Organizations (Research in Occupational Stress and Well-being, Volume 13) Emerald Group Publishing Limited, p. 137-165. doi: 10.1108/S1479-355520150000013005

SCOTT, K. L.; ZAGENCZYNK, T. J.; SCHIPPERS, M.; PURVIS, R. L.; CUZ, K. S. (2014) Co-worker Exclusion and Employee Outcomes: An Investigation of the Moderating Roles of Perceived Organizational and Social Support. Journal of Management Studies, v. 51, n. 8, p. 1235-1256.

SEALEY, C. (2015) Social exclusion: re-examining its conceptual relevance to tackling inequality and social injustice. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, v. 35, n. 9-10, p. 600-617. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/IJSSP-05-2014-0040

SHAPIRO, J. P.; STEFKOVICH, J.; A. (2011) Ethical leadership and decision-making in education. Applying theorical perpectives to complex dilemas (3rd edition). New Your, Routledge.

SHEPHERD, C. D.; TASHCHIAN, A.; RIDNOUR, E. R. (2011) An investigation of the job burnout sindrome in personal selling. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, v. 31, n. 4, p. 397-409.

SIMHA, A.; ELLOY, D. F.; HUANH, H. C. (2014) The moderated relationship between job burnout and organizational cynicism. Management Decision, v. 52, n. 3, p. 482-504. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/MD-08-2013-0422

SULLIVAN, T. N.; FARRELL, A. D.; KLIEWER, W. (2006) Peer victimisation in early adolescence: Association between physical and relational victimisation and drug use, aggression, and delinquent behaviors among urban middle school students. Development and Psychopathology, n. 18, p. 119-137.

TAMBULASI, R. I. C. (2009) Pushed to the abyss of exclusion: ICT and social exclusion in developing countries. Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, v. 7, n. 2-3, p. 119-127. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/14779960910955837

TATA, J. (2002) THE INFLUENCE OF ACCOUNTS ON PERCEIVED SOCIAL LOAFING IN WORK TEAMS. International Journal of Conflict Management, v. 13, n. 3, p. 292-308. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/eb022878

TEKINER, M. A.; TAVAS, B. (2016) Analysis of organizational cynicism and organizational loyalty: Turkish Police Department Sample. Journal of Human Sciences, v. 13, n. 1, p. 2338-2348. http://dx.doi.org/10.14687/ijhs.v13i1.3751

THAU, S.; DERFLER-ROZIN, R.; PITESA, M.; MITCHELL, M. S.; PILLUTLA, M. M. (2015) Unethical for the Sake of the Group: Risk of Social Exclusion and Pro-Group Unethical Behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, v. 100, n. 1, p. 98-113. DOI: 10.1037/a0036708.

TOGONZ N.; YILMAZ G. H. (2008) Organizational Cynicism: an Iinvestigation on Hotel Organizatinions in ESKISEHIR and ALANYA, Anadolu Üniversitesi sosyal bilimler dergisi. Anadolu University journal of social sciences, v. 8, n. 2, p. 283-305.

TREVINO, L. K.; NELSON K. A. (2004) Managing Business Ethics. 3rd edition, New York, John Willey and Sons, Inc.

VAN DER WALT, F.; MPHOLO, T. S.; JONCK, P. (2016) Perceived religious discrimination as predictor of work engagement, with specific reference to the Rastafari religijon. Verbum et Ecclesia, v. 37, n. 1, p. 1-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/ve.v37i1.1524

VAN DICK, R.; TISSINGTON, P. A.; HERTEL, G. (2009) Do many hands make light work?: How to overcome social loafing and gain motivation in work teams. European Business Review, v. 21 n. 3, p. 233-245. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09555340910956621

VARTIA-VAANANEN, M. (1996) The sources of bullying – psychological work: enviroment and organizational climate. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology: Mobbing and victimization at work. London, p. 203-215.

VASCONCELOS, A. F. (2015) Portraying some determinants of discrimination in the workplace. Management Research: The Journal of the Iberoamerican Academy of Management, v. 13, n. 2, p. 211-232. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/MRJIAM-02-2015-0574

VASILJEVIENĖ, N. (2006) Organizacijų etika: instucinės etikos vadybos sistemos. Vilnius: VU, Jungtinis Verslo etikos centras.

VASILJEVIENĖ, N.; PUČĖTAITĖ, R. (2009) Establishing integrity to eliminate women discrimination in science: implications from empirical research in Lithuania, Economics and Management, n. 14, p. 633-640.

VEGA, G.; COMER, D. (2005) Sticks and stones may break you bones, but words can break your spirit: Bullying in the workplace. Journal of Business Ethics, v. 58, p. 101-109.

VĖTAITĖ, I.; KOLČINIENĖ A.; MACAS, A.; MIKALAUSKAS A.; BILSKIENĖ, D. (2010) Stresas ir nuovargis medico darbe:gydytojų anesteziologų-renimatologų patirtis. Available: https://ojs.kauko.lt/index.php/ssktpd/article/viewFile/77/71. Access 28/07/2016.

VICKERS, M. H. (2009) Bullying, disability and work: a case study of workplace bullying. Qualitative Research in Organizations and Management: An International Journal, v. 4, n. 3, p. 255-272.

VICKERY, W. L. (2013). Producing and Scrounging During Problem Based Learning. Journal of Problem Based Learning in Higher Education, v. 1, n. 1, p. 36-52. http://dx.doi.org/10.5278/ojs.jpblhe.v1i1.272

VON HIPPEL, C. D. (2006) When people would rather switch than fight: out-group favoritism among temporary employees. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, v. 9, p. 533–546.

VOSYLIŪTĖ, A. (2010) Moterys: vienišumo reikšmės. Gender Studies & Research, n. 8, p. 109-115.

VVEINHARDT, J. (2012a) Identification of the Reliability of Methodological Characteristics of Quality in the Diagnostic Instrument for Mobbing as Discrimination in Employee Relations on Purpose to Improve the Climate in Lithuanian Organisations. Transformations in Business and Economics, v. 11, n. 2, p. 218-232.

VVEINHARDT, J. (2012b) Nepotizmo vertinimo dichotomija: socialinės ir etinės dimensijos. Organizacijų vadyba: sisteminiai tyrimai, n. 64, p. 123-134. http://dx.doi.org/10.7220/MOSR.1392.1142.2012.64.8

VVEINHARDT, J. (2016) Employees’ Safety from Psychological Violence in Social Enterprises: State Subsidies or Private Initiative? Social Enterprise - Context-Dependent Dynamics In A Global Perspective, edited by Rosario Laratta, ISBN 978-953-51-2275-3. doi: 10.5772/62474 p. 105-125.

VVEINHARDT, J.; PETRAUSKAITĖ, L. (2013) Nepotizmo, favoritizmo ir protekcionizmo trianguliacijos koncepcinis modelis. Organizacijų vadyba: sisteminiai tyrimai, n. 65, p. 137-148. http://dx.doi.org/10.7220/mOSR.1392.1142.2013.65.10

VVEINHARDT, J.; ŽUKAUSKAS, P.; RIVERA, M. (2014) Testing Hypotheses Concerning Correlations between „Mobbing as Discrimination“ Employee Relations and Organizational Climate. Problems and Perspectives in Management, v. 12, n. 3, p. 26-37.

VVEINHARDT, J.; ZYGMANTAITĖ, R. (2015) Influence of CSR Policies in Preventing Dysfunctional Behaviour in Organizations. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, v. 205, p. 340-348. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.09.095

WILKERSON J. M.; EVANS W. R.; DAVIS W. D. (2008) A test of coworkers‘ influence on organizational cynicism, badmouthing, and organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, v. 38 n. 9, p. 2273-2292.

WILLIAMS, E. S.; LAWRENCE, E. R.; CAMPBELL, K. S.; SPIEHLER, S. (2009) The effect of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization on physician–patient communication: A theoretical model, implications, and directions for future research, in Grant T. Savage, Myron D. Fottler (ed.) Biennial Review of Health Care Management: Meso Perspective (Advances in Health Care Management, Volume 8) Emerald Group Publishing Limited, p. 3-20. doi: 10.1108/S1474-8231(2009)0000008005

WILLIAMS, K.; HARKINS, S.; LATANE, B. (1981) Identifiability as a deterrent to social loafing: two cheering experiments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, v. 40, n. 2, p. 303–311.

WU, CH.; LIU, J.; KWAN, H.; LEE, C. (2016) Why and When Workplace Ostracism Inhibits Organizational Citizenship Behaviors: An Organizational Identification Perspektive. Journal of Applied Psychology, v. 101, n. 3, p. 362-378.

YAN, Y.; ZHOU, E. H.; LONG, L. R.; JI, Y. (2014) The Influence of Workplace Ostracism on Counterproductive Work Behavior: The Mediating Effect of State Self-control. Social Behavior and Personality, v. 42, n. 6, p. 881-890. DOI: 10.2224/sbp.2014.42.56.881

YANGA, M. L.; AMOAKO, I. O. (2013) Legitimizing Dishonesty in Organizations: A Survey of Managers in Four Sub-Sahara African Countries, in Tiia Vissak, Maaja Vadi (ed.) (Dis)Honesty in Management (Advanced Series in Management, Volume 10) Emerald Group Publishing Limited, p. 243-268. DOI: 10.1108/S1877-6361(2013)0000010015

YILDIZ, B.; LUTFIHAK, A. (2015) A Theoretical Model on the Proposed Predictors of Destructive Deviant Workplace Behaviors and the Mediator Role of Alienation. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, v. 210, p. 330-338. DOI: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.11.373

YILDIZ, S.; ŞAYLIKAY, M. (2014) The Effect of Organizational Cynicism on Alienantion. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, v. 108, p. 622-627. DOI: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.12.517

ZHAO, H.; PENG, Z.; SHEARD, G. (2013) Workplace ostracism and hospitality employees‘ counterproductive work behaviors: The joint moderating effects of proactive personality and political skill. International Journal of Hospitality Management, v. 33, p. 219-227. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhm.2012.08.006

ZIGMAN, O. (2014) Romanian Social Care Workers’ Exposure to Workplace Violance. Cross-Cultural Management Journal, v. 16, n. 1(5), p. 223-232.

ZIMMERMAN, C. A.; CARTEER-SOWELL, A. R.; XU, X. H. (2016) Examining Workplace Ostracism Experiences in Academia: Understanding How Differences in the Faculty Ranks Influence Inclusive Climates on Campus. Frontiers in Pshychology, v. 7, n. 753. http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00753

ŽUKAUSKAS, P.; VVEINHARDT, J. (2013) Vadybinės transformacijos socialiai darniai visuomenei ir konkurencingai valstybei plėtoti: organizacijos klimato krizę sukeliančių reiškinių diagnostika. Vytauto Didžiojo universiteto mokslo klasteriai, p. 273-282.

ŽUKAUSKAS, P.; VVEINHARDT, J. (2015) Diagnosis of mobbing as discrimination in employee relations. Engineering Econimics, v. 64, n. 4, p. 103-113.

ŽULOVA, J. (2015) Legal Issues Associated with Nepotism in the Workplaces in the Slovak Republic. European Scientific Journal, v. 1, p. 10-17.

ZUSCHLAG, B. (1994) Mobbing: Schikane am Arbeitzplatz. Goettingen: Verlag fuer angewandte Psychologie.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14807/ijmp.v8i1.532

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2017 Jolita Vveinhardt

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

LIBRARIES BY

Logo Gaudeamus

Logo INDIANA

Logo CHENG KUNG

Logo UTEP

Logo MOBIUS

Logo UNIVEM

Logo Kennedy

Logo Columbia

Logo UCS

Logo MSG/UFF

Logo OPT

Logo Biblioteca Professor Milton Cabral Moreira

Logo UFL

Logo ULRICHSWEB

Logo UNISA