Periodicity.: January - March 2017
e-ISSN......: 2236-269X
MODELO PARA A FORMATAÇÃO DOS ARTIGOS A SEREM UTILIZADOS NO ENEGEP 2003

 SELF –ENGINEERING STRATEGY OF SIX DIMENTIONAL INTER-SUBCULTURAL MENTAL IMAGES

 

Mostafa Jafari

Department of Management, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran

E-mail: Strategy2000ir@yahoo.com, Jafari.Mostafa@znu.ac.ir

 

Submission: 08/04/2015

Revision: 22/04/2015

Accept: 01/05/2015

 

ABSTRACT

How the people continually create and recreate the six dimensional inter inter subcultural relationships from strategic point of view? Can they engeene and direct it toward creating a set of peacefull subcultures? This paper answers to these questions. Our mental images shape the quantity and quality of our relationships. The six dimensions of mental images are: my mental image about me, your mental image about you, my  mental image you, your mental image about me, my imagination about your image about me and your imagination about my mental image about you. Strategic engineering is dynamic shaping this images and imaginations.

Methodology

This survey based on object and the relation between variables is explanatory, correlation and quantitative. The target community members are 90 educated people from universities. The data hes been collected through questionnaire and interviewand has been analysed by descriptive statistical techniques and qualitative method.

Results

Our finding shows that engineering and deliberately managing the process of inter subcultural transactions in the national and global level can able us to reform continually a peaceful set of learner sub cultural toward recreate a peaceful unit global Home.

Keywords: subcultural transaction, six dimensional mental images, self engineering Strategy

1.         INTRODUCTION

            The history of inter- subcultural relationship among human kind is as long as human social life. Todays in the huge and discontinuos changes age the acceleration of changes goes beyound of people adaptablity domain (TOFFELER, 1970). So majourity of people are not able to admeasure, compare it,s dimentions, and manage the geometry of their unstable, discontinous and multi dimentional inter sub-cultural communications, due to enhance the quantity and quality of social life, becouse of the sub-culture is on of the invironmental factores which shape the personality of individuals and personality is the set of stable ways that a person react to environment and communicate with others.

2.         SCIENTIFIC FRAMEWORK

2.1.    Mentaal image

            A mental image or mental picture is the representation in a person's mind of the physical world outside of that person (EYSENCK, 2012).

            There are several theories as to how mental images are formed in the mind. These include the Dual-Code Theory, the Propositional Theory, and the Functional-Equivalency Hypothesis. The Dual-Code Theory, created by Paivio in 1941, is the theory that we use two separate codes to represent information in our brains: image codes and verbal codes. Image codes are things like thinking of a picture of a dog when you are thinking of a dog, whereas a verbal code would be to think of the word "dog" (PAIVIO, 1941).


2.2.    Six dimentional strategy of mental Image

            Any comunication bigenes from perspective that any person has about himself. According theory of Dean Barnlond the relationship between two person confirm based on six attitudes are mental images as fallows:

a)        My Mental images of myself

b)        My mental images of you

c)         Your mental images of yourself

d)        Your mental images of me

e)        My mental imagination of your images about me

f)          Your imagination about my mental images of you

Figure1: Six dimentions of Mental Images at two situation

            Usaully the quantity and some times the quality of peopele six dimentional mental images about her or himself and other people increase duration the life.

2.3.    Subcultural  knowledge

            Subculture can be define as "a cultural group within a larger culture, often having beliefs or interests at variance with those of the larger culture" (OXFORD DICTIONARY). According Riesman (1950) we can distinguish the majority and minority of meaning of style, a majority, "which passively accepted commercially provided styles and meanings, and a 'subculture' which actively sought a minority style and interpreted it in accordance with subversive values". Hebdige (1979) In his book Subculture: The Meaning of Style, argued that a subculture is a subversion to Normalcy. He wrote that subcultures can be perceived as negative due to their nature of criticism to the dominant societal standard. Hebdige argued that subcultures bring together like-minded individuals who feel neglected by societal standards and allow them to develop a sense of identity.

            Thornton (1995) drawing on Pierre Bourdieu, described "subcultural capital" as the cultural knowledge and commodities acquired by members of a subculture, raising their status and helping differentiate themselves from members of other groups. Gelder (2007) proposed to distinguish subcultures from countercultures based on the level of immersion in society. Gelder further proposed six key ways in which subcultures can be identified through their:

a)        often negative relations to work (as 'idle', 'parasitic', at play or at leisure, etc.);

b)        negative or ambivalent relation to class (since subcultures are not 'class-conscious' and don't conform to traditional class definitions);

c)         association with territory (the 'street', the 'hood', the club, etc.), rather than property;

d)        movement out of the home and into non-domestic forms of belonging (i.e. social groups other than the family);

e)        stylistic ties to excess and exaggeration (with some exceptions);

f)          refusal of the banalities of ordinary life and massification.

            Two sociologists showed that a subculture is a group that serves to motivate a potential member to adopt the artifacts,  behaviors,  norms,  and  values  characteristic  of  the  group  (FINE; KLEINMAN, 1979).

2.4.    Subcultures' relationships with mainstream culture

            Potato chip packages featuring hip hop subcultural designs in a case of mainstream commercial cultural merging

            It may be difficult to identify certain subcultures because their style (particularly clothing and music) may be adopted by mass culture for commercial purposes. Businesses often seek to capitalize on the subversive allure of subcultures in search of Cool, which remains valuable in the selling of any product (HOWES, 1996), This process of cultural appropriation may often result in the death or evolution of the subculture, as its members adopt new styles that appear alien to mainstream society (GOLDSTEIN, 2010)

3.         RESEARCH TYPE

            This survy is based on result an applied research, based on purpose a specific , besed on time period a cross sectional , based on variables a qualitative research and based on conditions is a nonexperimental investigation.

3.1.    Target community

            Target community is the students and faculty members of irany universituies .The subcultures which I have studied are: Fars, Turk Azeri, Gilaki, Mazani, Torkman, Balouch, Irani Arab, kord, Lor, Lak, Zorotostian, Kormanji, Irani Jowish subculture, Irani christian subculture

3.2.    Sample society

            The members of research sample society are educated persons from high level governmental universitis of Iran who belong to variety sub-culturs of Iran., these people comparatively has inter-cultural knowledge more than others. the biographical attributes of target community members is as fallow:

Number : 90

persons Sex:                   

Men: 50                              

women: 40

Education level:  High educated

Age: from 20 to 50 years

Location: the provinces of Iran (Tehran, Zanjan, Gillan, Mazandaran, East azarbaijan, West azarbahjan, Golestan, Ardabill, fars) and from 10 universities.

3.3.    Sampleing Method

            The members of Sample society have been selected through accessable method.

 

3.4.    Data Collection Method

            The data and information has been collected through a questionnaire contains twenty descriptive (open answer) questions and interview. This data are first hand.

3.5.    Data Analysis Mathod

            The collected data has been analysed through descriptive statistic techniques (Mean, ratio, Average, middle, Percent) and by Spider-Web thechnique. This technique showes the changes of mental images about inter subcultures.

3.6.    Variables

            The two key variable are: Six dimentional mental images, Subculture, the six dimentional mental images from inter subcultural communication point of view have been specify as fallow:

a)        My Mental images about my own sub-culture

b)        My mental images of your subculture

c)         Your mental images about your own sub-culture

d)        Your mental images about my subculture

e)        My imagination about your mental images of my sub-culture

f)          Your imagination about my mental images of your sub-culture

3.7.    Self- Engineering strategy of Mental image

            Self-engineering strategy of Mental image is deliberately scanning the proccess of changing the six dimentional mental images about subcultures in a specific time duration.

3.8.    Inter Subcultural Ralationship

            Any kind of transaction between one or some people from a subculture and one or some people from other subcultures.

3.9.    Subcultures

            In this survey Subculture is Common actions (behaviours), Common Objects (things), Common belives (Opinions) and Common Emotons (Affections) of a social group, like common language and common clothing.

            The relationship way and ability of a person depend on her or his cultural identities.Identity of people forms through the five involute cultural circle or context. In this survey these six dimentional mental images have been analysis at the forth level of sociual context.

Figure 2: Cultural levels of Identity

4.         RESULTS AND FINDINGS

4.1.    First result:

            All memebers of sample society at least have a face to face transaction with one or more iranian subcultures. This transaction begins at the first decade of life for 40% and at the second decade for the 60% of people. Acording  the Ericson,s theory of personality development this decade years (11 to 21 years old) are the period of forming identity (CRAIN, WILLIAM, 2011). So one of invironmental factors which affect the social personality of irany people is inter subcultural transactions.

4.2.    Second Result:

            Any Irany have has at least a transactions with five subcultures at the middle ages (20 to 50 years old). This measns any irany people acquires six different subcultural mental Images about her or himself and other subculture members.

4.3.    Third Result:

            The subcultures that hase been experienced based on creteria of periority are as fallow:

a)    Persian subculture : 100 %

b)    Turk Azeri subculture : 100 %

c)    Mazandarani subculture : 100 %

d)    Lore subculture : 82 %

e)    Gilak subculture : 70 %

f)     Kord subculture : 66 %

g)    Zorotostian subculture : 50 %

h)   Torkman subculture : 30 %

i)     Christian subculture : 16 %

j)      Jonibi(Busher & Hormozgan): 10%

k)    Bahaei subculture : 10 %

l)     Kormanaji subculture : 0 %

m)  Jewish subculture : 0 %

n)   Arab(Irani) subculture : 0 %

o)    Balouch subculture : 0 %

            As the figure 3 shows members of sample society has no direct transaction with four (27%) Irani subcultures. Also transaction with two subcultures has been less than 20 percent. This means the intersubcultural transaction in iran is poor.

Figure 3: The quantity of Irani Inter subcultural transaction

          Of cource the one reson for poor transaction between some subculture like jewish and christian subcultures can be those few pupulation .

4.4.    Forth Result:

            The foreign subcultures (cultures) that target community members have face to face transaction with thems are fallows:

a)    Turky subcultures,(40%)

b)    Middle East Arabic(Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Dubai and Saudi Arabia) subculture, (30%)

c)    Scandinavian subculture ( 20%)

d)    Indonisian subculture(10%)

e)    Malasian subculture(10%)

f)     Azeri -Nakhjavan, Baku- (30%)

g)    Malaya(10%)

4.5.    Fifth Results:

            Half of Iranians have not any direct and fece to face transaction with foriegn cultures and subcultures, and other half Has a few transaction just with five foriegn culture or subculture among handreds subcultures. It means the subcultural knowledge of iranians is in loe level, and the transaction between iranian subcultures and foriegn subcultures are very poor.

4.6.    Sixth Result

            The mental image of 85% people about her or himself and about her or him own subculture has been changed after transaction with other subcultures. It means subcultural relationship is a powerful factor that affects to the shaping proceccess of personality.

4.7.    Seventh Result

            The quantity and quality(positive or negative) of changing of mental images after inter subcultural transaction are not equal see:

a)    The positive Mental image of 25% of people about her or himself hes been changed to negative

b)    The 15% of people has not any change at their mental images.

c)    The negative Mental image of 16% of people about her or himself hes been changed to positive.

4.8.    Eighth Result

            The mental image of people about their own subculture after transaction with other subcultures has been changed (77%).

4.9.    Nineth result

            The second dimention of mental Image (mental image of a subculture people about other subcultures) has been changed after direct transaction with other subcultures. Amount of this change is about 74%. The direction of this change has been positive and negative. This means that inter subcultural relationships can reform our inter cultural knowledge and make it deeper and accurate.

4.10.    Tenth Result

            The imagination of iranian subcultures about mental images of other subcultres about her or himself hes been changed squal 75% after intersubcultural transaction. More than half of cases this change has been awareness about our negative point and weaknessess from comunicational point of view. Our pre mental images about our own subculture usually is positive but this is not true at all time. We need look at to our identity from other perspectives inter subcultural transaction gives us this oppourtunity. This means that this kind of communication can act as a cognitive strategy of recreating social and cultural even religious peace. (in the opposite direction of cultures and civilizations clash).

5.         CONCLUTION

            The three dimentional mantal images of any irani subcultures that from reciprocal prspective it is a six dimentional communication are continually and reflectively changing, reforming, developing, and become accurately. If we decide to analyse and reform and direct this proccesses deliberatly, we can continually make an effective reciprocal inter-subcultural relationship and recreate a peacfull set of globalized subculturals.

REFRENCES

CRAIN, W. (2010) Theories of Development, Concepts and Applications, 6th Edition,Published by Taylor and Francis.

EYSENCK, M. W. (2012) Fundamentals of cognition, 2nd ed. New York, NY: Psychology Press.

FINE, G. A.; KLEINMAN, S. (2016)  Rethinking Subculture: An Interactionist Analysis, American journal of sociology, v. 122, n. 1, July. Availble at: http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/226971

GELDER, K. (2007) Subcultures: Cultural Histories and Social Practice (Routledge, March 2007; softcover ISBN 0-415-37952-0), availble at : https://books.google.com/books?id=JpZ-AgAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=Gelder,+Ken+(2007).+Subcultures:+Cultural+Histories+and+Social+Practice+(Routledge,+March+2007;+softcover+ISBN+0-415-37952-0)&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi7_ZTsjIDPAhWDLhoKHZcsDmAQ6AEIIDAB#v=onepage&q&f=false

GOLDSTEIN, G. O. (2010) Producers of 'Japan' in Israel: Cultural appropriation in a non-colonial context." Ethnos:Journal of Anthropology 68.3 (2003): 365. Print online . Available at: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/0014184032000134496 & http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/0014184032000134496?needAccess=true.

HEBDIGE, D. (1979) Subculture:The Meaning of Style. London: Routledge. ISBN 0415039495  First published in 1979 by Methuen & Co. Ltd, availble at: http://www.erikclabaugh.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/181899847-Subculture.pdf

HOWES,  D. (1996)  Cross-cultural consumption: global markets, local realities. New York: Routledge,. Print, availble: https://eclass.uoa.gr/modules/document/file.php/MEDIA165/globalization-taayikn/David Howes-Cross-cultura consumption_global markets,local realities-Routledge (1996).pdf

JAFARI, M. (2015) Qualitative Analysis of the Status of Twenty-One Religious, Cultural, and Social Creteria with Strategic Approach by Spider Web Technique, Internatioanl journal of Academic Research in Business and social sciences, v. 5, n. 7, p.140-155.

OXFORD DICTIONARY,  available  at : http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/subculture

PAIVIO, A. (1941) Dual Coding Theory. Theories of Learning in Educational Psychology. Access: 2013. Available: http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/IP/paivio.html

RIESMAN, D. (1950) Listening to popular music, American Quarterly, 2, p. 359-71. Cited in Middleton, Richard (1990/2002). Studying Popular Music, p. 155. Philadelphia: Open University Press. ISBN 0-335-15275-9.

THORNTON, S. (1995) Club Cultures: Music, Media, and Subcultural Capital. Cambridge: Polity Press. Cited in Negus, Keith (1996). Popular Music in Theory: An Introduction. Wesleyan University Press. ISBN 0-8195-6310-2.

TOFFELER (1970) Future shock, Bantam Book publishing co, Online  available at : http://www.slideshare.net/dickieaguado/future-shock-by-alvin-toffler-1970

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2017 Mostafa Jafari

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

LIBRARIES BY

Logo Gaudeamus

Logo INDIANA

Logo CHENG KUNG

Logo UTEP

Logo MOBIUS

Logo UNIVEM

Logo Kennedy

Logo Columbia

Logo UCS

Logo MSG/UFF

Logo OPT

Logo Biblioteca Professor Milton Cabral Moreira

Logo UFL

Logo ULRICHSWEB

Logo UNISA