Periodicity.: October - January 2014
e-ISSN......: 2236-269X

PARADIGM: A BIBLIOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF PAPERS PRESENTED AT THE CONFERENCES OF THE POMS FROM 2000 TO 2010

 

João Almeida Santos

Universidade Metodista de São Paulo – UMESP, Brazil

E-mail: joao.almeida@metodista.br

 

José Antonio Massaroppe

Universidade Metodista de São Paulo – UMESP, Brazil

E-mail: jose.massaroppe@metodisa.br

 

Jose Alberto Carvalho dos Santos Claro

Universidade Metodista de São Paulo – UMESP, Brazil

E-mail: albertoclaro@albertoclaro.pro.br

 

Submission: 26/08/2013

Revisions: 22/09/2013

Accept: 25/09/2013

 

 

ABSTRACT

This study presents bibliometrics on Paradigm in papers presented at the Production and Operation Management Society (POMS) from 2000 to 2010, and establishes the profile of the authors and the theoretical relationships present in those papers’ content. The portal of the Production and Operation Management Society and the abstracts contained in each of the events of the period were used, seeking to highlight the concept of Paradigm and its approaches. As a result, the articles presented at the POMS from 2000 to 2010, at least three out of the four hundred papers had the concept in its title or abstract, besides being within the central arguments of these same items analyzed by this study.

 

Keywords: Organizations. Administration. Paradigm. Bibliometric research. POMS.

 

1.         INTRODUCTION

            The first edition of the POMS – Production Operation Management Society, took place from 14th to 17th October 1990 in Washington, DC, the USA, with the proposal that remains until the current edition, having as mission integration of professionals concerned with finding solutions to problems of Production and Operation Management. The organization was created by professional friends in the U.S., Canada and Europe and in the first edition had approximately one thousand members and the University of Baltimore was the first partner in this success story. The purposes of the Society are: to extend and integrate knowledge that contributes to the improved understanding and practice of production and operations management (POM); to disseminate information on POM to managers, scientists, educators, students, public and private organizations, national and local governments, and the general public; and to promote the improvement of POM and its teaching in public and private manufacturing and service organizations throughout the world.

            The competition between companies in any sector of activity has become recurrent. In search of improvements in technology management and production operation, companies seek changes in the production process to generate good results and this problem is not just theirs but of everyone who is involved in the process and concerned with finding solutions that provide increased production with quality and safety for workers and consumers. This concern was part of the first letter sent to members by president Singhal (1990), who at the time summoned not only people connected to the business world but also the government, academic community and the press. The challenge was issued and the community continues to grow and provide solutions to operation and production management problems. The events since then were concerned with publishing papers that provided solutions to such problems, breaking existing paradigms in academic conferences concerned with content, very often inaccessible to the novice researcher or the machine operator who is leading the process. The administration takes care of objects and concepts of high complexity, whose evidences often go unnoticed for those researchers who consider the discussion of paradigms a private issue (LIMA, 2011). POMS events allowed researchers from different lines of behavior and performance areas to expose the results of their research regardless of whether they were against the prevailing current of thought. That is, it allowed the paradigm shift in the discussion and presentation of research results.

            The reconstruction of European and Japanese economies, the rapid technological development, changes in consumer behavior, demand for products with higher quality and lower cost, lower productivity caused by the depletion of the organizational form of the work, forced the discontinuity of the paradigm of mass production imposed by Ford and Taylor (SACOMANO; MARTINS, 1994). The relationships between organizations and other social actors do not represent only other structures resulting from their activities, but also define and delimit their possibilities for action (MACHADO-DA-SILVA; GUARIDO FILHO; ROSSONI, 2006). The paradigm is to break the dependence relation of production between the actors involved, such as company and employee, for the processes are changed and require less and less the physical presence of man to make the product.

            Society before the rise of manufacturing entrepreneurship and workers, was not one of independent people. Most people on the history were dependent and they did not work for an organization, but to an owner (DRUCKER, 2011). With the expansion of the relationship between company and employee, several management tools have emerged to improve the performance and management process including: reengineering, downsizing, outsourcing, empowerment, CRM – Customer Relationship Management, Balanced Score Card (PRETTO; FILARDI; PRETTO, 2010). This shows a paradigm shift in the establishment of a unit of measure of performance of those involved and a change in strategy to improve business results and not simply the replacement of that individual who was not generating a satisfactory result.

            The exchange of knowledge of performance tools and the identification of the most appropriate for a given situation arise in the research presented at conferences like POMS in several years. This attends the two first objectives established since the first conference in October 1990: to extend and integrate knowledge that contributes to the improved understanding and practice of production and operations management (POM) and to disseminate information on POM to managers, scientists, educators, students, public and private organizations, national and local governments, and the general public. The theoretical contribution arises from an interest in exposing a problem, hypotheses, methodology, arguments, and finally the solutions found. Variables, constructs, concepts that explain the nature of social or individual phenomena and the criteria for judging whether correct factors were included are: the scope when all relevant factors are included and thrift when some factors are excluded for adding little extra value to our understanding (WHETTEN, 2003). Following the pursuit of the theory formation, the researcher's next step is to check what relationships exist between the factors and establish a series of questions so that responses are analyzed and can explain the involvement of the concept and results obtained. The predominant concepts receive a strong influence of the traditional scientific administration approach. Many emphasize the importance of systemic thinking and continuous improvement (ANTONELLO; GODOY, 2009).

2.         RESEARCH PROBLEM AND OBJECTIVE

            The aim of this study is to show the articles that addressed the issue paradigm presented in the POMS – Production Operation Management Society in the period from 2000 to 2010, trying to establish a relationship between the concept paradigm and the content of the article under discussion. What are the concepts involved in the content of the article? How is the paradigm concept presented and what is the new interpretation to the problem studied? These are some of the issues that this article shows from the themes and abstracts of articles consulted. This is a bibliometric survey establishing the use of statistics to illustrate the written communication in the POMS research presented at conferences from 2000 to 2010.

            Considering the objectives defined by the designers of the POMS in the first edition in Washington, DC, in 1990, and the context of the period analyzed in this paper, we note that in the management of knowledge provided by the opportunity given to researchers in the various conferences, it is clear the follow up of science and technology expansion, making it important to assess these advances and to determine the developments reached by different disciplines of knowledge (VANTI, 2002).

3.         THEORETICAL REFERENTIAL

            The bibliometric studies try to track and report the statistical knowledge of a particular term or concept published in a source of information and dissemination of knowledge. The term bibliometrics was first used in December 1969 by Fairthorne in his article published in the Journal of Documentation on bibliometric description and it reported that the term had been involuntarily given by Pritchard (in BROADUS, 1987) and Fairthorne had dedicated the term Statistical Bibliography or Bibliometrics as statistical information about how many times a particular concept of knowledge is reported or studied in a scientific publication or class. However most definitions of the word have been, like Pritchard's, wide-ranging and imprecise. Fairthorne, also in 1969, said that it denoted “quantitative treatment of the properties of recorded discourse and behaviour appertaining to it.” In view of the many possible kinds of properties of recorded discourse, and of the countless sorts of behavior that might pertain to it, this definition also seems unmanageably wide (BROADUS, 1987).

            Paradigm is a set of beliefs, values and theories accepted and shared by a community of a given science and all share the same idea about how things are and behave within a given subject according to the vision of those who analyze it. In this sense, Khun (2004) admits that the scientific community knows how the world works and seeks to demonstrate this knowledge, but researchers find questionable results breaking the paradigm and new questions arise to be researched and demonstrated. Therefore, we realized that the paradigm in shock is explained and forms the new scientific knowledge.

            The choice between the various competing paradigms to take place in revolutionary science is not made from empirical data, but not clearly answering the question as it is, then the choice is made by one of the paradigms. The dominant paradigms in management: reductionism, inability to deal with contradictions and no appreciation of the subjectivity of human essential capacity of interpreting reality; these three factors combined have led to instrumental rationality taken as logic of life, to organizational behavior as human action, to profit as profitability, to productivity as self-realization, to efficiency as organizational relevance, and as work as employment (SERVA, DIAS; ALPERSTEDT, 2010).

            For Morgan (1980) it is useful to start with the concept of paradigm made popular Kuhn, although the concept has been subjected to a wide and confusing range of interpretation. This is partly because Kuhn himself the used the paradigm concept in not less than twenty-one different ways consistent with three broad senses of the term: 1 – as a complete view of reality, or way of seeing; 2 – as relating to the social organization of science in terms of schools of thought connected with particular kinds of scientific achievements; 3 – as relating to the concrete use of specific kinds of tools and texts for the process of scientific puzzle solving.

            Any adequate analysis of the role of paradigms in social theory most uncover the core assumptions that characterize and define any given world view, to make it possible to grasp what is common to the perspectives of theorists whose work may otherwise, at a more superficial level, appear diverse and wide ranging (MORGAN, 1980).

            Such efforts began sensitizing theorists to the notion of paradigms—the assumptions, practices, and agreements among a scholarly community—and legitimizing less mainstream alternatives. Although functionalism-positivism remains dominant, theorists increasingly are grounding their work within more critical and interpretive paradigms (LEWIS; GRIMES, 1999).

            Lewis and Grimes (1999) contributed a useful guide to exemplars, we distinguish among three approaches: (1) multiparadigm reviews, (2) multiparadigm research, and (3) metaparadigm theory building. They used the term multiparadigm to denote disparate paradigmatic perspectives and metaparadigm to signify a more holistic view that transcends paradigm distinctions to reveal disparity and complementarity, view the Table 1.

            The table propouse multiparadigm approaches to reflexion and copies the authors consider the critical self-reflection, however, should permeate the process. For while multiparadigm techniques may help extend theorists’ peripheral vision dramatically, resulting metaparadigm theory will have roots within The theorists’ initial assumptions, requiring them to constantly question their paradigmatic biases (LEWIS; GRIMES, 1999).

            Paradigm is also conceptual framework comparable to software whose functionality is addressed to “different forms of data and different types of work, (where) different conceptual frameworks are used to analyze and solve problems for modeling and management of organizations” (CARAVANTES et al., 2005, p. 8 in LIMA, 2011).

            An understanding of the roles of paradigm and perspectives in the body of knowledge such as actuarial science must, however, take cognizance not only of the individual’s self and circumstance, but also in the social institutions that govern or influence the formation of that knowledge (ACTUARIAL SOCIETY ORG, 2006).

Table 1: Multiparadigm Approaches and Exemplars

Exemplar

Technique

Phenomenon of Interest

Output

Multiparadigm reviews

Alvesson (1987)

 

Bracketing

 

Work

 

Interpretive frames

Astley & Van de Ven (1983)

Bracketing

Organization theory

Debates

Morgan (1983)

Bracketing

Research methods

Modes of engagement

Morgan (1997)

Bracketing

Organization

Metaphors/images

Reed (1996)

Bracketing

Organization studies

Analytical narratives

Smircich (1983)

Bracketing

Culture

Research programs

Gioia & Pitre (1990)

 

Bracketing and

Bridging

Theory building; structure

 

Paradigms; transition

zones-structuration theory

Grint (1991)

 

Bracketing and

Bridging

Technology

Debates; transition

zone-actor network theory

Kaghan & Phillips (1998)

Bridging

Knowledge

Constructivist perspective

Weaver & Gioia (1993)

Bridging

Structure

Structuration theory

Willmott (1993)

Bridging

Labor process

Radical labor process theory

Multiparadigm research

Bradshaw-Camball & Murray (1991)

Parallel

Organizational politics

Trifocal view

Graham-Hill (1996)

Parallel

Small-firm strategy

Tree case studies

Hassard (1991)

Parallel

Work organization

Four empirical studies

Martin (1992)

Parallel

Culture

Tree perspective frameworks

Gioia, Donnellon, & Sims (1989)

Sequential

Cognitive scripts

Objective-subjective study

Gioia & Thomas (1996)

Sequential

Strategic change

Subjective-objective study

Lee (1991)

Sequential

Organization

Sequential strategy

Sutton & Rafaeli (1988)

Sequential

Emotional display

Triangulated study

Metaparadigm theory building

 

 

 

Gioia & Pitre (1990)

Metatheorizing

Organizational structure

Conjecture inversion

Grimes & Rood (1995)

Metatheorizing

Local epistemology

Bridging epistemologies

Morgan (1983)

Metatheorizing

Research methods

Reflective conversation

Poole & Van de Ven (1989)

Metatheorizing

Structure

Paradoxical strategies

Bouchikhi (1998)

Interplay

Organizational paradoxes

Dialectical tensions

Clegg (1990)

Interplay

Power

Metaparadigm theory

Gaventa (1980)

Interplay

Power

Metaparadigm theory

Reed (1997)

Interplay

Structure—action

Stratified ontology

Schultz & Hatch (1996)

Interplay

Culture

Paradigm interplay

Spender (1998)

Interplay

Knowledge

Pluralist epistemology

Ybema (1996)

Interplay

Culture

Metaparadigm theory

Source: Lewis and Grimes (1999).

4.         METHODOLOGY AND RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT

            POMS – Production Operation Management Society – the purposes of the Society are: to extend and integrate knowledge that contributes to the improved understanding and practice of production and operations management (POM); to disseminate information on POM to managers, scientists, educators, students, public and private organizations, national and local governments, and the general public; and to promote the improvement of POM and its teaching in public and private manufacturing and service organizations throughout the world.

            Bibliometrics is a set of empirical laws and principles that contribute to the establishment of the statistics of how many times a particular concept is published in a scientific medium. In this sense, this research was developed to identify the statistical disclosure or discussion of the concept paradigm in POMS conferences held in the period from 2000 to 2010.

Table 2: POMS - Year, place and central themes of the congress

Year

City

Central theme of the conference

2000

San Antonio

Product Innovation & Technology Management

2001

Orlando

Supply Chain Management, Product Innovation & Technology Management

2002

San Francisco

Behaviour in Operations Management

2003

Savannah

Behaviour in Operations Management

2004

Cancun

Operations Management 2004: The Expanding Constellation

2005

Chicago

Supply Chain Management

2006

Boston

Sustainable Operations, Supply Chain Management

2007

Dallas

Supply Chain Management

2008

La Jolla

Behaviour in Operations Management

2009

Orlando

Supply Chain Management, Behaviour in Operations Management

2010

Vancouver

Healthcare Operations Management

Source: prepared by the authors

            With the aim of the conference POMS defined since its inception, Table 2 shows the year, the city and the focus of most articles published in the congress. The researchers tried to disseminate their work in order to contribute to the discussions and development of new research that would allow the strengthening of the topic.

            In this paper the authors analyzed the information from the abstracts and full papers to check the concentration of information conveyed by the researchers and subjects are defined in Table 2, grouped by general themes. This survey allowed the definition of the researchers on the purpose of this paper, which is to show in bibliometric study the statistics of discussion of the concept Paradigm in the POMS conferences held between 2000 and 2010.

            Articles submitted and approved by the evaluators of the POMS between 2000 and 2010 with the concept Paradigm being quoted and discussed with the sense of beliefs, values and accepted and shared theories by a community of a given science or the same meaning that Kuhn admitted when he said that the scientific community knows the meaning of the concepts and the sense that they are applied in solving problems, are also inserted in the articles analyzed that were presented at the POMS from 2000 to 2010, except 2006 which was not included by the authors because their data were limited and meaningless for the purpose of this research, which is to build a bibliometric evaluation of the concept Paradigm on the papers presented at the POMS from 2000 to 2010.

Table 3: Bibliometrics of the concept Paradigm at the POMS conferences from 2000 to 2010

Year/Place of the conference

Statistics of the concept Paradigm on the articles (%)

2000/San Antonio

4.23

2001/Orlando

8.45

2002/San Francisco

5.63

2003/Savannah

8.45

2004/ Cancun

11.27

2005/Chicaco

8.45

2007/Dallas

12.68

2008/La Jolla

11.27

2009/Orlando

9.86

2010/Vancouver

19.72

Source: prepared by the authors

            The bibliometrics of the concept Paradigm shown in Table 3 is most evident in congresses held in Vancouver, Dallas, La Jolla and Cancun. Out of all the congresses analyzed by the authors, Vancouver represents 19.72% of the citations of the concept Paradigm and Dallas ranks second with 12.68%. As the bibliometric work is to establish a statistics of the knowledge of a concept or theory discussed in scientific circles, this paper shows that the concept Paradigm is being discussed at least 4.23% in one of the POMS conferences held from 2000 to 2010.

Table 4: Article and principal passage in which the concept Paradigm appears

POMS year/city

Title

Author

University or Research Center of origin

Contribution

2000/San Antonio

Expanding the Boundaries of the Operations Strategy Process: Lessons from Corporate Strategy

David L. Barnes

Open University Business School, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA UK,

Consideration of process in operations strategy has changed little since Skinner's original prescriptive model. This was firmly rooted in the dominant top down, rational corporate planning paradigm of that era. In contrast, corporate strategists have subsequently broadened their thinking about the strategy process to develop both descriptive and prescriptive models.

2001/Orlando

Webcasting/Push Technology In Intranets And Extranets

 

Cheickna Sylla,

 

 

 

Khalid M. Dubas,

CAB, School of Management, New Jersey Institute of Technology,

Fayetteville State University, NC,

Webcasting or push technology automatically sends information from the producer of information

to the server or client computer of the subscriber. This paradigm is different from the traditional method of accessing web content - a method which requires an individual to seek out information via a search engine or URL. Webcasting does not require active participation by the viewer and in this sense it is more like the television mode of information delivery.

2002/San Francisco

Coordinated Planning System Configuration- A Transition from ERP to SCM: Infra-Organization Integration to Inter-Organization Integration

 

Diatha K. Sundar and L.S.Murthy.

 

 

Central idea: In the current business and manufacturing scenario, the paradigm is looking at ERP and SCM as complementing management tools for competitiveness rather than considering them as independent strategies and looking at them in isolation.

2003/Savannah

The New Paradigm: Industrial Ecology

Reynaldo Mello, University Federal of Rio Grande do Norte, reymel@uol.com.br

Sergio Marques Junior, Federal University do Rio Grande do Norte

Reynaldo Mello and

Sergio Marques Junior

University Federal of Rio Grande do Norte - Brazil

The purpose of this work is the conception analysis about environmental management and

ecomanagement. These two conceptions are basics to building sustainable development, because they are the new enterprise strategy of the industrial world. This new paradigm, industrial ecology, has to be

able to change the human social organization.

 

2004/ Cancun

Analytic hierarchy process helps measure performance of hospitals

 

Prasanta K Dey Ph.D and Seetharaman Hariharan MD,

 

University of West

Indies, Bridgetown, BARBADOS, West Indies

Quality of healthcare delivery is a very difficult paradigm to measure quantitatively and it was thought it might be impossible to measure it at all. Donabedian outlined the classical three categories of measurement of quality of healthcare delivery namely structure of the healthcare institution, process of care and outcome of the patient (Donabedian, 1988).

2005/Chicaco

Contracting in Multi-Tier Supply Chains in the presence of Information and Knowledge

discrepancies

 

Moti Levi,

Shankar Sundaresan,

 

Penn State University

The increasing usage of contract manufacturing and outsourcing, coupled with globalization, requires

firms to extend their control to second-tier suppliers. Previous literature either focused on inventory or had

examined contracting with the first tier only. In this paper we use a principal-agent paradigm to analyze

contracts along a three-tier supply chain when both the second and third tier affect the final product’s quality.

2007/Dallas

Innovation in Supply Networks: an exploratory study

 

 

José Alcides Gobbo Junior

 

UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista (Brazil)

 

The increasing competition in the 90´s had placed still more pressure for flexibility in production and management. This took the change of the vertical bureaucratic structures

for the horizontal company, modifying the previous paradigm, of that the competition is between business-oriented units.

2008/La Jolla

The leather industry and its environmental impact: subsidies

For the implementation of environmental management

Actions

 

Vanessa Cintra Alves,

Adilson Renofio,

Agnaldo de Sousa Barbosa1,

 

 

UNESP- Universidade Estadual Paulista (Brazil)

UNIFRAN- Universidade de Franca (Brazil)

 

The leather industry is relevant for the Brazilian economy, considering that it represented, in 2006, 1.61% of the country's total exports. Acknowledging the growing trend

of consumers opting for goods with social-environmentally responsible production processes,

it is essential that companies start adapting to this new paradigm to stay in the market

2009/Orlando

Supply Chain Agility, Collaboration, and Performance: How do they Relate?

 

 

 

Teresa Betts

Suresh K. Tadisina

 

Department of Management

Southern Illinois University

 

Modern competition is being fought “supply chain versus supply chain” rather than “firm versus firm” (Boyer, Frohlich, & Hult, 2005; Ketchen & Guinipero, 2004; Ketchen & Hult, 2007). This shift of focus from individual firms competing to supply chains competing has been one of the most significant paradigm shifts in business management (Chen et al., 2004a; Lambert & Cooper, 2000).

2010/Vancouver

Agile Product Innovation

 

Saeed Najafi Tavani*

and

Hossam S. Ismail

Liverpool Management School

The University of Liverpool

Chatham Building

Liverpool L69 7ZH

United Kingdom

Innovation and new products have become increasingly important as competitive factors for companies to achieve long-term and sustainable advantages. However, escalating uncertainty and complexity in business environment impose the development of new vision, and appropriate approaches such as integrated models in order to shed more light on successful product innovation paradigms.

Source: the authors from 2000 to 2010 POMS conferences

5.         RESEARCH RESULTS

            The research was carried out considering the articles that presented the concept Paradigm at the POMS events from 2000 to 2010, with the exception of 2006, whose data did not show consistency for inclusion in the final analysis. Information was obtained mainly from the Internet portal of the POMS of the referent year and after data analysis we identified the following articles particularly relevant to answer the question of this paper, which is the bibliometrics of concept Paradigm at the POMS editions from 2000 to 2011, as seen above in the description of the year it was presented, title, author and principal portion of the article that cites the concept of this research.

            Table 4 shows the main articles selected for this study because they represent the application of the concept Paradigm as the beliefs, values and definitions accepted by a community and that deserve to be studied and evaluated again according to the changes happening in the object of study. The articles cited in the table address this view regardless of their country of origin, their beliefs or their training, since they start from a knowledge of a science that belongs to the concept studied and showed with the results of his research new concepts and definitions from the observed events in their study objectives.

6.         FINAL THOUGHTS

            This research was conducted in order to identify the use and discussion of the concept Paradigm on the papers presented at the conferences POMS-Production and Operation Management Society between 2000 and 2011, defined as a bibliometrical study of these articles. As reported in the section that dealt with the theoretical framework, the term bibliometrics was first used in December 1969 by Fairthorne in his article published in Journal of Documentation on bibliometric description and it reported that the term had been involuntarily given by Pritchard (in BROADUS, 1987) and Fairthorne had used the term statistical Bibliography or Bibliometrics as statistical information about how many times a particular concept of knowledge is reported or studied in a scientific publication or class. Today bibliometric studies are important for researchers to identify the trend and scientific interest of the class about a particular concept. As the concept becomes more discussed, it shows that the scientific class is concerned with going deeper in that discussion and making new discoveries and applications at the same time that it shows the evolution of science in a given period on a particular fact.

            In this sense, the present study tried to identify the bibliometrics of the term Paradigm on the articles selected and presented at the POMS conferences from 2000 to 2010, being characterized that the term in applied human sciences is still applied and discussions are held to seek new applications and directions setting surrounding the case analyzed to form a theory of application of the concept Paradigm.

            As a result, the articles presented at the POMS from 2000 to 2011, at least three out of the four hundred papers had the concept in its title or abstract, besides being within the central arguments of these same items analyzed by this study.

            When it comes to identifying researchers who applied the concept in their research, there is a predominance of Brazilians, followed by Americans and British.

            As proposal for future works, further studies can be carried out to identify the changes in the scientific field in which the concept was applied, for we realize that during the research in which the concept Paradigm was applied the authors who attended the POMS lived a reality with several questions which they tried to answer and after the survey was carried out an evaluation could be made to verify the changes in that environment in which the analyzed event occurred.

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